Breaking News: Gona-CON and the “Path Forward’s” – Eight Sleazy Steps to Wild Horse Extinction in the US

Thanks to those in power without empathy (1) (2), who manipulate the American people on both sides of the aisle, gaining power and kickbacks from the $85.6 billion/yr {FACTORY} Farm Bill (All the give aways for school lunches and free food programs only create a market for their grizzly, unhealthy products which wipe out our wildlife and fresh water, in pretty packages). At the same time, amassing horse slaughter $$ from the NM border and others, as well as slimy political kudos from those they deceive, divide, and attempt to conquer, all while happily and illegally harming both sentient homo sapien and sentient equine.

(1) https://brightside.me/inspiration-psychology/what-are-the-most-popular-jobs-among-psychopaths-523710/ (2)https://www.cnbc.com/2016/11/18/why-psychopaths-are-so-good-at-getting-ahead.html “One of the most difficult things in life is to recognize a skillful and smart psychopath….” Meet Tom Udall who set up an Indigenous person to take the fall. We have to question if even “pro-social” psychopaths should have any say over animal welfare.

North American Continent

THIS STORY IN BRIEF: The Path Forward and the Big GonaCON is a slippery story of wild horse wipe out for USDA approved meat. GonaCON is a wild horse sterilant developed by the government with an adjuvant preapproved by the USDA for use in food animals. The government also developed a darting machine for use with this sterilant which also imbeds a micro chip, thereby ending the use of sometime life saving identification by freeze brand.

The well known contraceptive PZP which does not easily or necessarily sterilze, is purposefully not allowed for use in this darting machine and it is not approved for use in food animals due to mis-categorization as the government does not want the horses managed at any level of population. They want them as meat or gone.

Step 1: Create a hormonal sterilant (Gona-CON) that effectively sterilizes both Stallions and Mares. (Stallions in one shot loses harem stallion role in 6 mos.)

“Six months post-vaccination, serum testosterone concentrations had decreased and the treated stallion had lost his harem stallion role.” https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fvets.2020.569185/full?&utm_source=Email_to_authors_&utm_medium=Email&utm_content=T1_11.5e1_author&utm_campaign=Email_publication&field=&journalName=Frontiers_in_Veterinary_Science&id=569185

“There is a chance some vaccinated females will become permanently
sterile. Accidental injection of males will result in infertility.” “Accidental injection may cause infertility in
women.” https://www3.epa.gov/pesticides/chem_search/ppls/086833-00001-20170706.pdf

Step 2: Ensure the USDA will allow Gona-CON’s use in food animals or meat market.

The liquid carrier for a vaccine which boosts immune response by making the body think there is an issue using dead parts of a bacterium etc., but is non-disease causing, is called an adjuvant. The government, which has developed Gona-CON has worked to ensure that the adjuvant for Gona-CON is accepted for use in food animals. See page 2 of this link which states

“NWRC has modified and tested a USDA-approved Johne’s vaccine called Mycopar™ as a replacement for
Freund’s adjuvant. Mycopar™ has already been approved for use in food animals by APHIS.” (See Green Sidebar on page 2) http://mtlebanon.org/DocumentCenter/View/9629/gonacon1rev_Updated-2008?bidId=

The tricky EPA label states “Do not apply this product to food or feed.” meaning not to put Gona-CON “on” food (see last link in Step 1), to imply it is not made for use in food animals, however, it is. https://www3.epa.gov/pesticides/chem_search/ppls/056228-00041-20151119.pdf Also, see first page, the USDA-APHIS is the owner of this patent.

Step 3: Create a Remote Control Darting Machine (developed with the government at NMSU).

This machine can dart three horses at once in the chest (FRONT) while eating side by side at feeding stations. This machine also inserts a chip to track who is already sterilized. Remote/machine darting is important because this hormonal sterilant GonaCON, is not safe for humans/women to handle.

Reportedly, the cost is $100,000 per machine. Hence, the $11 million for “contraception” which was recently approved by Congress and was advertised (by those who drink the Kool Aid, or have a conflict of interest), as a WIN for wild horses. This will buy about 50 to 100 of these machines.

Step 4: BLOCK the use of non-hormonal and non-sterilant contraception PZP(1) in this Darting Machine.

Porcine Zona Pellucida called PZP (1) was developed by a non-governmental organization (NGO) (2) (3). HSUS owns the PZP patent though HSUS did not develop it and does not manufacture it. However, HSUS has reportedly disallowed PZP to be darted from the chest (front) thereby tacitly allowing ONLY the government’s sterilant, Gona-CON, to be used in government’s Remote Control Darting machine.

Our native horses and burros are almost gone, despite mainstream media misinformation which also virtually never mentions the 93 million non-native cattle (which outweigh us and out eat us in this nation) vs approximately 0.05 million wild horses in the US . Cattle are also about 1/3 larger than they were 50 yrs ago due to genetic manipulation and 70% of crops we grow, which uses up most of our fresh water, is fed to livestock and both are sent overseas for $$! We don’t even have 1/10th of a million wild horses in the entire US.

Citizens Against Equine Slaughter (CAES) in Oregon has caught the BLM attempting and performing round ups on our native wild horses without the required environmental (NEPA) review and notification of interested parties, as part of their 10-year plan, “The Path Forward” (see Step 5, below). For this and other reasons, we have filed Appeals with the Interior Board of Land Appeals. CAES has also caught and stopped the use of GonaCON at an HMA in Oregon without inclusion in the NEPA process. These 10 year plans are their liscense for fraud behind the curtain.

(1) PZP is disallowed for use in food animals per it’s EPA label http://(3) PZP is disallowed for use in food animals per it’s EPA label https://www3.epa.gov/pesticides/chem_search/ppls/086833-00001-20170706.pdf because it’s adjuvant though not disease causing can give false positives for TB due to it’s ability to also protect an animal from being infected with TB. https://www.jstor.org/stable/20096515. This is because an adjuvant called Freund’s Adjuvant though not disease causing can give false positives for TB due to it’s ability to also protect an animal from being infected with TB. https://www.jstor.org/stable/20096515 However, PZP uses only modified Freund’s adjuvant and Freund’s incomplete adjuvant which do not give false positive results for TB. https://www.sccpzp.org/pzp/faq/

(2) Science and Conservation Center, Billings Montana, which sells this contraceptive at a loss for a very low price about $25/ vaccination. https://www.sccpzp.org/pzp/faq/ No one is gettin rich here.

(3) PZP: Porcine Zona Pellucida contraceptive has been used successfully without the need for one round up, or one adoption, for over 30 years at Assateague National Park (over 45,000 acres most of them very remote as verified on google maps!). https://www.nps.gov/asis/learn/nature/resource-brief-horses.htm

Step 5: Congress Passed the “Path Forward”, a 10-year illegal, disgraceful helicopter roundups and sterilization plan in just ONE congressional session.

The Path Forward delivered us straight to Hell. With helicopter stampedes and being sent to slaughter around the world (through Mexico per the United Nations report, as has happened through time). What’s left of us will lose our families thanks to the Gona-CON.

“PATH FORWARD”: US Senator Tom Udall planned and announced his retirement on March 25th 2019. Six months later on October 2 2019, the PATH FORWARD was passed and ASPCA gave Tom Udall ALL the credit via email announcement (see picture above, with emphasis added) for PUSHING and successfully passing this disgraceful path to extinction in ONE Congressional session. Tom Udall thereby set up an Indigenous Secretary of the Interior, while he himself, stepped aside.

Cruelly, Tom Udall had neither the Canadian border nor his own NM border closed to horse slaughter transport before passing this huge round up and sterilization plan, cynically called the Path Forward. As a multi-year sponsor of the SAFE ACT (1), which would close the borders to horse slaughter, he well knew the consequences of this plan and of the slaughter it would cause.

Cruelly Again, Tom Udall did not end the inhumane and therefore illegal federal helicopter round ups before passing the Path Forward. (2).

(1) SAFE ACT: This Congressional bill would end American Horse slaughter by disallowing horses to be sent over our borders to be slaughtered in other countries. It has been introduced in various forms since 2015 and it generally has approximately 200 plus co-signers, yet never moves significantly. What do we see, empathy or excuses? This lets us know who is in office. https://www.congress.gov/bill/117th-congress/house-bill/3355/all-info

(2) Likewise, after many years of sponsoring the SAFE ACT as a NM Congress person, Michelle Lujan Grisham (Democrat) became a NM Governor but has not closed the NM border to horse slaughter, as neither did stated anti-slaughter Governor Martinez (Republican). This alone limits their access to the presidency but makes it clear who is running the government, and it’s neither party.

Step 6: American politicians without empathy know that they cannot openly support horse slaughter in the US. Their Answer? Scapegoat the Indigenous!

Politicians have been disgustingly working to scapegoat the Indigenous for horse slaughter in NM since as early as 2007 and after, even dumping horses on tribal lands to try and push them towards slaughter and working towards a horse composting center for federally wild horses in holding pens, calling it “triage” (much info. available upon request). Utah has also been caught up in this effort to PASS the HAT of slaughter off on the Indigenous. (See pics below from the governmentally attended Salt Lake City, Utah Slaughter Seminar Agenda in 2017. Courtesy CAES inspection of public records request (IPRA) to Governor Gary Herbert’s office.)

Salt Lake City Agenda 2017 “. . . removing the rider, transfer to tribal authorities. . .”, “transfer the horses as quickly as possible?”

Deb Haaland, Secretary of the Interior. At Deb Haaland’s pueblo, the Laguna Pueblo, there is no definition of a wild horse. All unowned horses are defined as estray livestock. The Laguna Pueblo hired the previous executive director of the New Mexico Livestock Board (NMLB) Robert Alexander as their Range Management Specialist and he has testified for the NMLB in court against Wild horses and WHOA (and lost) and for Senator Pat Woods at the NM legislature, who has brought numerous NM State bills against NM’s legally wild horses (1) in an attempt to eradicate them as estray livestock.

Moreover, Deb Haaland’s Congressional Field Representative and long time associate since at least 2013, Brenda McKenna, now NM Senator McKenna, is also working with Senator Pat Woods and co-sponsoring anti-wild horse bills (SB 385 of 2021) and other bills to wipe out NM’s state wild horse protections, infavor of private property rights (2). Senator McKenna’s signature ploy is much like that of Utah’s Chris Stewart, she trickily feigns care and safety concerns while doing absolutely nothing for road safety in the Rocky Mountain wild life corridor of the Sandia Moutain. While at the same time, she works to remove protections from round ups in favor of private property rights, though New Mexico is a fence out state for the 1.4 million non-native cattle. It is a fence out state for wild horses also, as WHOA has proven in court. This is what McKenna wants to change, so that property owners can call the NM Livestock Board or any Land Grant, or any other political subdivision of the state to round up wild horses (and specifically the 91 to 95% Spanish Wild Horses of Placitas in her new district), off anyone’s private property, rather than have to put up a fence like they/she would for the 1.4 million free range cattle of her state.

So where does Deb Haaland stand? Who is she really representing? Ask her. She has been loudly silent during these massive and brutal helicopter round ups. Many federally wild horses in Oregon alone have been round up without public notice with all kinds of horrendous injuries for which many have been euthanized.

(1) Ground breaking legislation was passed in NM in 2007 for state’s wild horses won by WHOA and Senator Komadina MD. which WHOA has upheld in court. NMSA 77-18-5. See whoanm.org for 3 court decisions.

(2) There have been 8 bills attempting to undo these protections and one of them in 2021 was even literally against another Pueblo is pro-wild wild horse and the Indian Affairs committee was literally lied to, but Senator McKenna voted for this bill which was killed later. Most of these bills have been by Senator Pats Woods (3) since 2017 after the WHOA court wins, and now Senator Brenda McKenna has joined him in 2021 with Senate Bill 385 (SB385). Here is just one of the duplicitous and misleading to the point of being fraudulent bills: SB126 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kg6ata_bvc8

(3) Senator Pat Woods is the recipient well over $1 Million from the infamous kick back source the Farm Bill. He uses his legislative position to steal our natural resources. Shouldn’t he be happy enough with this pocketfull of free $$$. See EWG working group.

Step 7: Allow the illegal Helicopter Round-ups in the Media/News! Of course! So that Americans can be rightfully appalled at Helicopter Round ups and instead support their sterilization by GonaCON as “humane”.

Helicopter round ups are now in the news, as they have never been since 2004 (1). WHY? They want people to push for Gona-CON as a “better” alternative to helicopter round ups, rather than other, much better alternatives such as PZP. The other humane issue, the Elephant in the room, is slaughter over the borders, which they sleazily refuse to stop. Their sleazy final solution is Gona-CON, the a sterilant that can be used on “food” animals and couched as a “humane” contraceptive, though it will destroy the very family structure that has allowed wild horses to survive millenia.

Two former “HSUS” staffers were at the front of the “anti-helicopter media”. They were hiding behind two new Utah groups with good sounding names. However again, now the use of a sterilant, Gona-CON, can be advertised as a kindness though seemingly an integral part of a disgusting and sleazy plan.

(1) WHOA stopped the helicopters at the USDA FS Carson National Forest through mediation of their Administrative appeal and a huge protest at the Region 3 USDA FS bldg. in Albuquerque, NM. Much media attended, TV stations, radio stations. The Helicopter round up was stopped right in the middle of the round up. After that, the media would only do stories on abandoned and abused horses rather than wild horses or slaughter. This is literally what many reporters have told WHOA. http://whoanm.org/HorseTerritoriesProject/Deadly%20Roundup%20Protest.htm

Step 8: End Freeze Brands and instead use chips compatible with the Automatic Darting Machine.

https://nmlegis.gov/handouts/LGC%20072318%20Item%203%20FS_2018%20Congress%20Brief%20NM.pdf

“Regional Office The Regional Office (RO) purchased 1,000 equine microchips (840 ISO standard 134 MHz). These microchips will replace freeze branding and use of the BLM identification system and meet the 9 CFR requirement for individual animal identification from point of origin. Each horse’s microchip is being registered in the National Equine Registry. The RO has developed a close working relationship with New Mexico State University on wild and feral horse issues in the State, as well as working with the Tribal Nations in the Southwestern Region . . .”

Yes of course, NMSU developed the Gona-CON darter which uses CHIPS!

In Conclusion

This is cruel, without empathy, and fraudulent. This is the destruction of our Natural Resources and collusion in doing so. This is all against our American culture. Our government has spent 50 years secretly and fraudulently working to exterminate our wild horses, while pretending they are not native and pretending to care while slaughtering them. This is clear.

The BLM is run in each state by that state’s Congressional Representatives. That’s why their web pages tell us to come to them for help with any federal agency. However, the elected officials hide how much money they receive from the Farm Bill through kickbacks from the large corporate ranchers or directly to themselves as in the case of NM State Senator Pat Woods and other public officials. The Farm Bill has been around since 1933, it is gigantic, and makes it very hard for citizens to compete for representation from their federal and state representatives.

Suffice it to say that a number of excellent management alternatives are available to the government. However, their only long term plan is native wildlife extinction as well as native flora extinction. This plan in and of itself, is illegal and unreasonable.

These politicians of Congress, and their pawn agencies, have never, ever, wanted these horses actually managed on the range like at Assateague or by their native predators (1). If they had wanted that, they would have done this since 1995. Management by round-up every 4 years is not management, it is meat. (2). PZP ends the meat, without easily wiping out the wild horses. These two end games are their ONLY plan. Easy meat or gone.

(1) Management by native predator of course works too, but native wolves, cougars, and even Bob Cats are also wiped out by cage traps and worse, while their pups and kits die of starvation. No empathy. Why? Again, to protect the meat industry and the 70% of crops grown in the US that feed it’s non-native livestock (Corn, Soy, Alfalfa, Wheat, Sorgum etc.). Not to mention all the mined water which that takes.

(2) The probability that any wild horse lives its life out on the range with their family is effectively zero with round-ups every 4 years. This is a livestock plan, a meat plan. Americans have continuously fought this so hard, Congress is now hiding behind these 10 year scenarios, like the Path Forward followed by (and along with) extirpation by GonaCON for more meat and gone. No empathy.

Some time in their short valient lives (10yrs or less due to cruel and arbitrary “sale authority”), they and their families will seperately become meat over our borders via a horrific and deathly stampede round up of new borns, foals, old, injured, pregnant, and their desperate stallions, working so valiently to defend them. With no transparency (no cameras on the helicopters, these family members also go to their deaths on the run, left behind.) No empathy.

By Patience O’Dowd

Endorsed by Ron Toahami Jackson

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BREAKING NEWS: The Sandoval Signpost Stealthily Solicits and Incites their readership to commit crimes against the NM State’s Legally Wild Horses of Placitas.


Though a reasonably useful and successful local newspaper in many respects, the Signpost consistently misleads their readership regarding wild horses.
The Sandoval Signpost is in a very tiny minority in Placitas NM, which has zero respect for the rule of NM State Wild Horse Protection law, passed in 2007 by WHOA(1) . The Signpost has hid this Wild Horse Protection legislation, as they literally twisted every aspect of the law and twisted even the recent federal BLM(2) public notice of livestock roundup in Placitas, while also giving out a road map to incite private citizens to break this state law protecting wild horses, and in doing so they themselves would be breaking many other state and federal laws.
Importantly the Signpost also consistently hides their own illegal pro-slaughter actions of 2014, while also deceptively discussing state kill bill legislation as if it is pro-wild horse. The Signpost did not even touch on the fact that the BLM has no jurisdiction over our Placitas Wild Horses as determined in federal Court in WHOA v Jewell in 2013.


I. The Law of 2007 Passed by WHOA – The Signpost Hides
In 2007, WHOA’s Protective Legislation(3) for NM state’s Wild Horses was passed unanimously minus 1 by Senator Steve Komadina MD (Republican) and signed into law as NMSA 77-18-5 by Governor Bill Richardson (Democrat) in 2007. This law referred to as The Wild Horse Act, has been repeatedly upheld in the NM Appellate Court(4) , the NM Supreme Court(5) and the 12th District Court(6) in two cases of WHOA v NMLB(7) . It is also illegal to incite one’s readership to commit crimes.


II. Signpost’s Inciting Crime and Violence is Illegal(8) – (Illegal Round-ups as Livestock, Illegal Gelding and Illegal Slaughter)
The Sandoval County Signpost published by Belknap Publishing Inc. a Placitas based corporation has published an: “immediate roadmap for violence” (9) against state’s property, the protected NM State’s Wild Horses of Placitas, and the people, in their August 2021 edition(10).


– “. . . If a landowner corrals a non-livestock horse, it instantly becomes livestock if the landowner takes ownership of it.” Here the Signpost’s Bill Divens quotes an “anonymous” attorney(11) literally talking about a “magic corral”!


– “left the Livestock Board with little to do beyond checking for signs of ownership if landowners corralled any on their private property” . . . Here Bill Divens gives the deceptive appearance that since the NMLB can no longer “protect” the wild horses selling them at public auction after 5 days, the citizens are then not breaking the law.

This is a “roadmap for violence” against a state resource/property and includes inciting specific illegal round-ups of the Placitas Wild Horses by private citizens on private land as unprotected livestock, contrary to the legislation passed in 2007 by WHOA which disallows round-ups of states wild horses by private citizens on any lands. (See NMSA 77-18-5 and footnotes 4-6)

Moreover, any veterinarian who works on a state’s wild horse is subject to the open records act(12) whether they geld a stallion for a private citizen breaking the law or whether they assist a wild horse as a legal humanitarian effort in any way. Notably, a stallion must be gelded before it is allowed over the Mexican border for slaughter.


III. Illegal and Collusion – Private citizen round up on private property.
The recent ruling of the 12 District court in WHOA v NMLB found that pursuant to NMSA 77-18-5, the NMLB and the private citizen were in collusion when she illegally rounded up the family members of the beloved iconic stallion known as Blaze (in Lincoln County, NM) who then ran the area literally screaming while searching for his family per witness testimony.


During ~2 years of court, WHOA literally gained split custody of Blaze’s family with the NMLB, though WHOA paid for most all of their feed and rent (from kind donations). WHOA later won a court order to release them right back into their Enchanted Forest home of Alto! Alto is a rural mountain community like Placitas, where over 90% of the residents signed a petition to the court, to allow Blaze’s family to be released right back on any of each of their private properties or on any of their neighbor’s private properties in the Enchanted Forest Sub Division.


WHOA then contracted Placitas Animal Rescue to trailer Blaze’s family and two other stallions (later taken by the NMLB during litigation!) right back home to the Enchanted Forest.


IV. Belknap Publishing Inc. Illegal Round-up, and Undeclared Conflict of Interest.
WHOA believes the readership has the right to know the public information regarding this corporation’s apparent conflict of interest regarding the stallion Ghost’s family in 2014.
Sandoval County Sheriff’s police report case no. 11- 1147 of 7/3/14 shows that Mr. Belknap himself rounded up these wild horses in his neighborhood.


The Sandoval Signpost states on their front page that they are an “Independent Local Newspaper”. Though a great community paper, with apparently two awards, (see page 3), this paper has not given fair or honest coverage (putting it lightly) to this community which has been overwhelmingly united for the wildlife corridor and its wild horses through time as proven by multiple community polls including one done by the Signpost in 2002(13) and many others through time including the independent poll commissioned by WHOA as requested by a donor in 2014.
The owner of Belknap Publishing Inc. Mr. John T. Belknap certainly has the right to any personal opinions. However, for journalistic integrity, WHOA has requested their conflict of interest(14) be declared among other requests.
However, the Signpost impartiality remains non-existent on the wild horse issue as well as some others (correspondence available).

WHOA has of course sent only respectful correspondence (available upon request) to Mr. Diven asking the Signpost for improvements in fairness and/or to please openly declare their conflict of interest to their readership(15) . WHOA believes the inaccurate and misleading coverage and criminal incitements in this issue, if not through time, are bordering on legal issues which WHOA believes are not protected by the first amendment.


V. Misleading Coverage of BLM’s July 9th Post Re: Unauthorized Livestock, with Apparent Intent.
The title of the article is “Free-roaming horses on Federal land subject to removal from Placitas”
The most important question to the BLM from this paper should arguably have been to ask the BLM if their notice regarding unauthorized livestock posted at the US Post Office in Placitas was referring to a round-up of the horses, (which both the lower and highest courts of NM agree are state’s wild horses are not livestock) or, referring to cattle. However, horses were certainly implied by the Signpost in this article on page 4 and 5, but the BLM was in fact not asked and did not answer this question hence, this is not clarified in this article which is literally about this issue per the inaccurate and misleading title “Free-roaming horses on Federal land subject to removal from Placitas”.
The Signpost however has someone else speculate “It is believed this implies the free roaming horses of Placitas.” On page 23. Emphasis added. One can certainly only speculate their purpose in this omission in their “reporting”.


VI. Misleading Bills (16) Kill-Bill Legislation by Our Own New “Placitas” NM Senator Brenda McKenna (Democrat) & Long Time NM State Senator, Pat Woods(17)(Republican).

There is the very strong appearance and history that our state government now including: Senator Brenda McKenna, Senator Pat Woods, supporting groups including: APNM /APV(21), and the media: including the Signpost, and others, are working to ensure that we also lose our few remaining wild horses in New Mexico due to their trickily writing, editing, and supporting of these kill bills (4 of them so far and one other) to LOOK LIKE they are pro-horse, so that both legislature and the Governor have pro-animal named groups to hide their pro-horse slaughter votes behind.

Given that Governor’s Martinez and Grisham Lujan(22) are both attorneys, they could not claim ignorance if they were to pass a kill bill masquerading as a Faux Protection Bill. Neither will the legislators which are tasked with actually understanding what they vote for as well as it being very clear now after 5 trick bills.

These tricky Kill Bills deceitfully touted as protection bills, is Tantamount to Conspiracy(18) against the New Mexico Open Meetings Act(19) and more.

This August 2021 issue of the Signpost as usual tout’s deceptive kill bill legislation as good for the wild horses and shows other local groups in support (who may be anti-wild horse or ignorant of the subterfuge) through time. The Signpost does not interview WHOA or print their opinions on these kills bills, however, WHOA and the citizenry have defeated them all (5 so far from 2017 to date.)

VII. Anatomy of Trick Bills which Strip Protections of Already Protected Wild Horses – DETAILS

Each faux bill by Senator Pat Woods hides the way in which it would send wild horses to slaughter, including this year’s with Senator Brenda McKenna.

This years sneak kill bill Senate Bill SB 368 by Senator Brenda McKenna (who hails as Deb Haaland’s former Congressional Field Rep (2020/21) ) and Senator Pat Woods would have specifically stripped the wild horses of their fence-out law protections. This would have allowed many people to round them up. The fence out law protection against round ups on private or other property was already afforded them through WHOA’s 2007 Wild Horse Protection Act and was upheld in court.

Each kill bill brought since WHOA’s court win of 2015 upholding their protective 2007 legislation would have also dangerously removed the NMLB’s requirement to perform DNA tests (costs only $100). The DNA test is there to largely to ensure the NMLB/Governor are not emptying New Mexico of wild equines (with unique lineages) as estray livestock as per their continued history of ignoring both federal and state laws in order to do so.

For example, many of the wild horses in New Mexico stem from the horses brought back to North America where they evolved for 55 million years (see DNA results of Placitas Wild Horses https://whoanm.org/wordpress/?p=326 ) by the Spanish. DNA tests are supposed to be conducted by NMLB anytime that they pick up a horse as estray livestock to ensure they are not stealing our wild equines and auctioning them as livestock. The University of New Mexico (UNM) is also supposed to test or have tested, their DNA in order to protect the lineage/genetic viability of our wild horses. The DNA tests would also allow the state to chart the relationships among the horses and create family trees that can be used to track family groups and manage responsible management programs as required by the 2007 Act.

Fake/Faux “Protection” Bill (Short Video) of 2017 (see link): SB126: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kg6ata_bvc8


The first two fake protection bills SB126 and SB158(20) would have made it almost impossible for a wild horse to be legally determined to be a wild horse thereby causing them to be categorized as livestock and put up for auction. Hence our wild horses would LOSE THE PROECTIONS THEY ALREADY HAVE.

NEW MEXICO’s WIPE OUT PATTERN: Our Governors through their board the NMLB continue to STEAL our wild equines, both state and federal through time. They have no respect for the rule of law in this area and are continuously in court wasting our tax dollars, losing while they lawlessly continue to plow out rather than manage, our few remaining wild equines (both sides of the aisle – as FARM BILL Kickbacks rule).

For example: The NMLB (Our NM Governor’s Board) already wiped out our federally Wild Donkeys in Lincoln County in 1974 even though they lost in the US Supreme Court in Kleppe vs New Mexico in 1976. Justice Thurgood Marshall told them then, that they had to follow the federal Wild Horse and Burro Act, however they still illegally evaded releasing the stolen Wild Donkeys of Lincoln County. This is why we now have only Donkey statues in the streets, sidewalks, and on the buildings in Carrizozo, NM however, zero legally wild Donkeys alive in Lincoln Co NM (or anywhere else in NM). This is their goal for our wild horses as well.

When will New Mexico’s “representatives” and “our” governors STOP intentionally and illegally clandestinely misrepresenting the overwhelming majority on this issue, our iconic and majestic wildlife, our very neighbors.


DONATE 🙂
Please donate to the WHOA legal fund at https://whoanm.org/wordpress/?page_id=43
if you like our legislative work for good bills and against trick kill bills in order to uphold our good legislation of 2007 in court as needed. Other bills we have also offered include:

1. to outlaw horse dumping in NM, (protects both domestic and wild horses)

2. To close the state to horse slaughter traffic, thereby effectively close the border to horse slaughter

3. To make domestic horses subject to the animal cruelty laws of the state (WHOA has already passed this for our wild horses) and much more.

4. We have also formed a 501 c4 non-profit.
Our successful legislative work is largely unreported and denied by the media including the Signpost or other area papers like Alb. Journal as they do not want WHOA’s work publicized as with publicity comes donations for legal funds which they apparently do not want. This due to kick back $$$ to both parties from the huge and bipartisan “Factory” Farm Bill.
100% of your donation goes to the wild horse’s cause. There are absolutely no Board salaries.
WHOA is a 501 c3 non-profit since 2004.


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Wild Horses as Native North American Wildlife

by Jay F. Kirkpatrick, Ph.D. and Patricia M. Fazio, Ph.D. (Revised January 2010)

Are wild horses truly “wild,” as an indigenous species in North America, or are they “feral weeds”—barnyard escapees, far removed genetically from their prehistoric ancestors? The question at hand is, therefore, whether or not modern horses, Equus caballus, should be considered native wildlife.

The question is legitimate, and the answer important. In North America, the wild horse is often labeled as a non-native, or even an exotic species, by most federal or state agencies dealing with wildlife management, such as the National Park Service, US Fish and Wildlife Service, and the Bureau of Land Management. The legal mandate for many of these agencies is to protect native wildlife and prevent non-native species from causing harmful effects on the general ecology of the land. Thus, management is often directed at total eradication, or at least minimal numbers. If the idea that wild horses were, indeed, native wildlife, a great many current management approaches might be compromised. Thus, the rationale for examining this proposition, that the horse is a native or non-native species, is significant.

The genus Equus, which includes modern horses, zebras, and asses, is the only surviving genus in a once diverse family of horses that included 27 genera. The precise date of origin for the genus Equus is unknown, but evidence documents the dispersal of Equus from North America to Eurasia approximately 2–3 million years ago and a possible origin at about 3.4–3.9 million years ago. Following this original emigration, several extinctions occurred in North America, with additional migrations to Asia (presumably across the Bering Land Bridge), and return migrations back to North America, over time. The last North American extinction probably occurred between 13,000 and 11,000 years ago (Fazio 1995), although more recent extinctions for horses have been suggested. Dr. Ross MacPhee, Curator of Mammalogy at the American Museum of Natural History, and colleagues, have dated the existence of woolly mammoths and horses in North America to as recent as 7,600 years ago. Had it not been for previous westward migration, over the 2 Bering Land Bridge, into northwestern Russia (Siberia) and Asia, the horse would have faced complete extinction. However, Equus survived and spread to all continents of the globe, except Australia and Antarctica.

In 1493, on Columbus’ second voyage to the Americas, Spanish horses, representing E. caballus, were brought back to North America, first in the Virgin Islands, and, in 1519, they were reintroduced on the continent, in modern-day Mexico, from where they radiated throughout the American Great Plains, after escape from their owners or by pilfering (Fazio 1995).

Critics of the idea that the North American wild horse is a native animal, using only selected paleontological data, assert that the species, E. caballus (or the caballoid horse), which was introduced in 1519, was a different species from that which disappeared between 13,000–11,000 years before. Herein lies the crux of the debate. However, neither paleontological opinion nor modern molecular genetics support the contention that the modern horse in North America is non-native.

Equus, a monophyletic taxon, is first represented in the North American fossil record about four million years ago by E. simplicidens, and this species is directly ancestral to later Blancan species about three million years ago (Azaroli and Voorhies 1990). Azzaroli (1992) believed, again on the basis of fossil records, that E. simplicidens gave rise to the late Pliocene E. Idahoensis, and that species, in turn, gave rise to the first caballoid horses two million years ago in North America. Some migrated to Asia about one million years ago, while others, such as E. niobrarensis, remained in North America.

In North America, the divergence of E. caballus into various ecomorphotypes (breeds) included E. caballus mexicanus, or the American Periglacial Horse (also known as E. caballus laurentius Hay, or midlandensis Quinn) (Hibbard 1955). Today, we would recognize these latter two horses as breeds, but in the realm of wildlife, the term used is subspecies. By ecomorphotype, we refer to differing phenotypic or physical characteristics within the same species, caused by genetic isolation in discrete habitats. In North America, isolated lower molar teeth and a mandible from sites of the Irvingtonian age appear to be E. caballus, morphologically. Through most of the Pleistocene Epoch in North America, the commonest species of Equus were not caballines but other lineages (species) resembling zebras, hemiones, and possibly asses (McGrew 1944; Quinn, 1957). 3 Initially rare in North America, caballoid horses were associated with stenoid horses (perhaps ancestral forerunners but certainly distinct species), but between one million and 500,000 years ago, the caballoid horses replaced the stenoid horses because of climatic preferences and changes in ecological niches (Forstén 1988). By the late Pleistocene, the North American taxa that can definitely be assigned to E. caballus are E. caballus alaskae (Azzaroli 1995) and E. caballus mexicanus (Winans 1989—using the name laurentius). Both subspecies were thought to have been derived from E. niobrarensis (Azzaroli 1995).

Thus, based on a great deal of paleontological data, the origin of E. caballus is thought to be about two million years ago, and it originated in North America. However, the determination of species divergence based on phenotype is at least modestly subjective and often fails to account for the differing ecomorphotypes within a species, described above. Purely taxonomic methodologies looked at physical form for classifying animals and plants, relying on visual observations of physical characteristics. While earlier taxonomists tried to deal with the subjectivity of choosing characters they felt would adequately describe, and thus group, genera and species, these observations were lacking in precision. Nevertheless, the more subjective paleontological data strongly suggests the origin of E. caballus somewhere between one and two million years ago.

Reclassifications are now taking place, based on the power and objectivity of molecular biology. If one considers primate evolution, for example, the molecular biologists have provided us with a completely different evolutionary pathway for humans, and they have described entirely different relationships with other primates. None of this would have been possible prior to the methodologies now available through mitochondrial-DNA analysis.

A series of genetic analyses, carried out at the San Diego Zoo’s Center for Reproduction in Endangered Species, and based on chromosome differences (Benirschke et al. 1965) and mitochondrial genes (George and Ryder 1986) both indicate significant genetic divergence among several forms of wild E. caballus as early as 200,000–300,000 years ago. These studies do not speak to the origins of E. caballus per se, but they do point to a great deal of genetic divergence among members of E. caballus by 200,000 to 300,000 years ago. Thus, the origin had to be earlier, but, at the very least, well before the disappearance of the horse in North America between 13,000–11,000 years ago. 4 The relatively new (30-year-old) field of molecular biology, using mitochondrial-DNA analysis, has recently revealed that the modern or caballine horse, E. caballus, is genetically equivalent to E. lambei, a horse, according to fossil records, that represented the most recent Equus species in North America prior to extinction. Not only is E. caballus genetically equivalent to E. lambei, but no evidence exists for the origin of E. caballus anywhere except North America (Forstén 1992).

According to the work of researchers from Uppsala University of the Department of Evolutionary Biology (Forstén 1992), the date of origin, based on mutation rates for mitochondrial-DNA, for E. caballus, is set at approximately 1.7 million years ago in North America. This, of course, is very close, geologically speaking, to the 1–2 million-year figure presented by the interpretation of the fossil record.

Carles Vilà, also of the Department of Evolutionary Biology at Uppsala University, has corroborated Forstén’s work. Vilà et al. (2001) have shown that the origin of domestic horse lineages was extremely widespread, over time and geography, and supports the existence of the caballoid horse in North American before its disappearance, corroborating the work of Benirschke et al. (1965), George and Ryder (1995), and Hibbard (1955).

A study conducted at the Ancient Biomolecules Centre of Oxford University (Weinstock et al. 2005) also corroborates the conclusions of Forstén (1992). Despite a great deal of variability in the size of the Pleistocene equids from differing locations (mostly ecomorphotypes), the DNA evidence strongly suggests that all of the large and small caballine samples belonged to the same species. The author states, “The presence of a morphologically variable caballine species widely distributed both north and south of the North American ice sheets raises the tantalizing possibility that, in spite of many taxa named on morphological grounds, most or even all North American caballines were members of the same species.”

In another study, Kruger et al. (2005), using microsatellite data, confirms the work of Forstén (1992) but gives a wider range for the emergence of the caballoid horse, of 0.86 to 2.3 million years ago. At the latest, however, that still places the caballoid horse in North America 860,000 years ago. 5 The work of Hofreiter et al. (2001), examining the genetics of the so-called E. lambei from the permafrost of Alaska, found that the variation was within that of modern horses, which translates into E. lambei actually being E. caballus, genetically. The molecular biology evidence is incontrovertible and indisputable, but it is also supported by the interpretation of the fossil record, as well.

Finally, very recent work (Orlando et al. 2009) that examined the evolutionary history of a variety of non-caballine equids across four continents, found evidence for taxonomic “oversplitting” from species to generic levels. This overspitting was based primarily on late-Pleistocene fossil remains without the benefit of molecular data. A co-author of this study, Dr. Alan Cooper, of the Australian Centre for Ancient DNA, stated, “Overall, the new genetic results suggest that we have underestimated how much a single species can vary over time and space, and mistakenly assumed more diversity among extinct species of megafauna.”

The fact that horses were domesticated before they were reintroduced matters little from a biological viewpoint. They are the same species that originated here, and whether or not they were domesticated is quite irrelevant. Domestication altered little biology, and we can see that in the phenomenon called “going wild,” where wild horses revert to ancient behavioral patterns. Feist and McCullough (1976) dubbed this “social conservation” in his paper on behavior patterns and communication in the Pryor Mountain wild horses. The reemergence of primitive behaviors, resembling those of the plains zebra, indicated to him the shallowness of domestication in horses.

The issue of feralization and the use of the word “feral” is a human construct that has little biological meaning except in transitory behavior, usually forced on the animal in some manner. Consider this parallel. E. Przewalskii (Mongolian wild horse) disappeared from Mongolia a hundred years ago. It has survived since then in zoos. That is not domestication in the classic sense, but it is captivity, with keepers providing food and veterinarians providing health care. Then they were released during the 1990s and now repopulate their native range in Mongolia. Are they a reintroduced native species or not? And what is the difference between them and E. caballus in North America, except for the time frame and degree of captivity?

The key element in describing an animal as a native species is (1) where it originated; and (2) whether or not it co-evolved with its habitat. Clearly, E. caballus did both, here in North American. There might be arguments about “breeds,” but there are no scientific grounds for arguments about “species.”

The non-native, feral, and exotic designations given by agencies are not merely reflections of their failure to understand modern science but also a reflection of their desire to preserve old ways of thinking to keep alive the conflict between a species (wild horses), with no economic value anymore (by law), and the economic value of commercial livestock.

Native status for wild horses would place these animals, under law, within a new category for management considerations. As a form of wildlife, embedded with wildness, ancient behavioral patterns, and the morphology and biology of a sensitive prey species, they may finally be released from the “livestock-gone-loose” appellation.

Please cite as: Kirkpatrick, J.F., and P.M. Fazio. Revised January 2010. Wild Horses as Native North American Wildlife. The Science and Conservation Center, ZooMontana, Billings. 8 pages.

LITERATURE CITED

Azzaroli, A. 1990. The genus Equus in Europe. pp. 339‐356 in: European Neogene mammal chronology (E.H. Lindsay, V. Fahlbuech, and P. Mein, eds.). Plenum Press, New York.

Azzaroli, A. 1992. Ascent and decline of monodactyl equids: A case for prehistoric overkill. Annales Zoologica Fennici 28:151‐163.

Azzaroli, A. 1995. A synopsis of the Quaternary species of Equus in North America. Bollttino della Societa Paleontologica Italiana. 34:205‐221.

Azzaroli, A., and M.R. Voorhies. 1990. The genus Equus in North America: The Blancan species. Paleontologica Italiana 80:175‐198.

Benirschke K., N. Malouf, R.J. Low, and H. Heck. 1965. Chromosome compliment: Difference between Equus caballus and Equus przewalskii Polliakoff. Science 148:382‐383.

Fazio, P.M. 1995. ʺThe Fight to Save a Memory: Creation of the Pryor Mountain Wild Horse Range (1968) and Evolving Federal Wild Horse Protection through 7 1971,ʺ doctoral dissertation, Texas A&M University, College Station, p. 21.

Feist, J.D., and D.R. McCullough, Behavior Patterns and Communication in Feral Horses, Z. Tierpsychol. 41:337‐371.

Forstén, A. 1988. Middle Pleistocene replacement of stenoid horses by caballoid horses ecological implications. Paleogeography, Paleoclimatology, Paleoecology 65:23‐33.

Forstén, A. 1992. Mitochondrial‐DNA timetable and the evolution of Equus: Comparison of molecular and paleontological evidence. Ann. Zool. Fennici 28: 301‐309.

George, Jr., M., and O.A. Ryder. 1986. Mitochondrial DNA evolution in the genus Equus. Mol. Biol. Evol. 3:535‐546.

Hibbard C.W. 1955. Pleistocene vertebrates from the upper Becarra (Becarra Superior) Formation, Valley of Tequixquiac, Mexico, with notes on other Pleistocene forms. Contributions from the Museum of Paleontology, University of Michigan, 12:47‐96.

Hofreiter, M., Serre, D. Poinar, H.N. Kuch, M., Pääbo, S. 2001. Ancient DNA. Nature Reviews Genetics. 2(5), 353‐359.

Kruger et al. 2005. Phylogenetic analysis and species allocation of individual equids using microsatellite data. J. Anim. Breed. Genet. 122 (Suppl. 1):78‐86.

McGrew, P.O. 1944. An early Pleistocene (Blancan) fauna from Nebraska. Field Museum of Natural History, Geology Series, 9:33‐66.

Orlando, L. et al. 2009. Revising the recent evolutionary history of equids using ancient DNA. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. www.pnas.org/cai/doi/10.1073/pnas.0903672106

Quinn, J.H. 1957. Pleistocene Equidae of Texas. University of Texas, Bureau of Economic Geology, Report of Investigations 33:1‐51.

Vilà, C., J.A. Leonard, A. Götherström, S. Marklund, K. Sandberg, K. Lidén, R. K. Wayne, H. Ellegren. 2001. Widespread origins of domestic horse lineages. Science 291: 474‐477. 8 Weinstock, J.E., A. Sher Willerslev, W. Tong, S.Y.W. Ho, D. Rubnestein, J. Storer, J. Burns, L. Martin, C. Bravi, A. Prieto, D. Froese, E. Scott, L. Xulong, A. Cooper. 2005. Evolution, systematics, and the phylogeography of Pleistocene horses in the New World: a molecular perspective. PLoS Biology 3:1‐7.

Winans M.C. 1989. A quantitative study of North American fossil species of the genus Equus. pp. 262‐297, in: The Evolution of Perissodactyles (D.R. Prothero and R.M. Schoch, eds.). Oxford University Press, New York, NY.

Jay F. Kirkpatrick, Director, The Science and Conservation Center, ZooMontana, Billings, holds a Ph.D. in reproductive physiology from the College of Veterinary Medicine at Cornell University.

Patricia M. Fazio, Research Fellow, The Science and Conservation Center, ZooMontana, Billings, holds a B.S. in agriculture (animal husbandry/biology) from Cornell University, and M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in environmental history from the University of Wyoming and Texas A&M University, College Station, respectively. Her dissertation was a creation history of the Pryor Mountain Wild Horse Range, Montana/Wyoming.

This document is the sole intellectual property of Drs. Jay F. Kirkpatrick and Patricia M. Fazio. As such, altering of content, in any manner, is strictly prohibited. However, this article may be copied and distributed freely in hardcopy, electronic, or website form, for educational purposes only.

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NM Legislature 2021 Bad Bill SB32 without amendment

Re: Opposition to SB32  and Request for Amendment in order to support.         Date 2/10/2021 10:56AM
Dear Senator Cervantes, Senators of the Judiciary Committee,
While the Senate Judiciary Committee has not published the impromptu “Agenda” for today, I am very concerned that people will not have a chance to be heard again on SB32 as on other committee substitutes/bills and amendments and time limits etc. in 2017/2019 to bills affecting NM’s few remaining and native wild horses. 
I am concerned about a pattern. Please therefore see the attached request for amendment of SB32.
Thanks Much in Advance for reading,Patience O’Dowd

a 501 c4 non-profit corp.PO Box 932Placitas, NM 87043

SEE NEXT POST for attachment

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NM Legislative Alert 2/10/21

Biodiversity & Wild Horse Wipe-Out Bill masquerading currently as an anti-trapping bill: NM Senate Bill (SB32).

Help us to get this bill Amended Asap!

BIO-DIVERSITY losses will be Arbitrary & Capricious: NM government agencies will be allowed to remove and dispose of native vertebrates w/o oversight, expertise, or specific public records requirements.

Without amendment, SB32[1] provides that: any federal or local governmental agency[2] could “capture” and “dispose” of any non-game vertebrate as a nuisance to non-native livestock or crops on our public lands under proposed Section NMSA 17-11-4.G., p. 5, lines 23-24, “. . . or to abate damages caused by any animal to property, crops or livestock.“

SB32 will not stop trapping on private lands, and will not stop governmental trapping on public lands.  California[3] and 85 other countries have banned trapping. Shall New Mexico be last?[4]

Competition between livestock[5] and game animals is the root cause of virtually all predator trapping, as predators are self-regulating[6] and rarely attack people[7]. New Mexico[8] government is both pro-livestock and pro-hunting of game animals, and is anti-wildlife. This, does not represent the people. Many of these issues can be addressed through rural economic development utilizing the WHOA National Plan[9] and a similar plan for Hunters.

WILD-EQUINE losses of our few remaining State’s wild horses, protected by law since 2007[10], will also be catastrophic. States have always owned their wildlife, even when roaming on federal lands, per the State Ownership Doctrine[11]. Under SB32, Federal agencies would gain NM State’s “approval” for illegal capture of NM’s wild horses by the New Mexico Livestock Board (NMLB), as agent, on federal lands along with the “approval” to take other NM State’s wildlife on federal lands, which they have never had “ownership” or authority under the State Ownership Doctrine to do before!  

These federal agencies under SB32 can put NM State’s wild horses in the hands of the NMLB, which has recently, repeatedly, and illegally, per the courts (see WHOA v. NMLB in 2015[12] and 2018), colluded, stole, and put our wild horses up for public auction which the courts then set FREE! Per a US Supreme Court ruling, these federal agencies including the BLM[13] have also acted illegally in NM to wipe out our federally protected equines. NM agencies also endanger our protected wolves[14]. NM now has no burros, and the 7000+ wild horses are down to only 543[15].   

HENCE, AMENDMENT Needed: Please join us in asking the NM Senate Judiciary Committee and the NM Legislature to pass an amendment to SB32 which will ensure this bill does not refer to equines, and also removes the second clause in NMSA 17-11-4.G., p. 5, lines 23-24, “. . . or to abate damages caused by any animal to property, crops or livestock.“ This clause is heinous and must be removed because native wildlife families will be thrown out of their perennial wildland home, in favor of seasonal non-native livestock.

Legislators have an ethical duty to represent the people, and therefore to understand what they are voting on. The wildlife belongs to the people of the state and the state is the trustee. Unequal protection of the livestock industry will no longer suffice.

 Without amendment, SB32 allows wildlife and their families to be captured & disposed of as nuisances although residing on their and our own public wildlands. Please email your support of this requested amendment to the Senate Judiciary committee members here: joseph.cervantes@nmlegis.gov , oneillsd13@billoneillfornm.com , cliff.pirtle@nmlegis.gov , greg.baca@nmlegis.gov , katy.duhigg@nmlegis.gov ,  daniel.ivey-soto@nmlegis.gov , linda.lopez@nmlegis.gov , mark.moores@nmlegis.gov , mimi.stewart@nmlegis.gov , please copy wildhorsesnm@yahoo.com.

CAVEAT: Although SB32 is supported by the Sierra Club and Animal Protection Voters of NM, please don’t let this confuse you. Sierra Club[16] has advocated since 1975 against free roaming wild horses as natives[17], and APVNM[18] has recently lobbied against wild horses in favor of a livestock industry bill in 2017and their testimony has aided another. These bills were Senator Pat Wood’s anti-wild horse bills SB126[19] and SB158.  

WHITE BOARD VIDEO ON SB126: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kg6ata_bvc8  This was also supported by the Cattle Growers, Wool Growers, and NM Livestock Bureau lobbyists, alongside the APVNM lobbyist. They were notcompromise bills in any sense and would have handed jurisdiction of wild horses over to the NMLB, and worse. See Whiteboard Video explanation of these tricky bills with non-helpful edits above.

SB126 came back morphed in 2019 as SB158, still working to undo the wild horse protections won in NMSA 77-18-5 (2007) which had been upheld by the Courts thanks to citizens’[20] due process at great care, expense, and effort.

APVNM continued to claim in 2019 that the NMLB already had jurisdiction over NM State’s wild horses but did not generally or publicly notify members when these bills would be heard. This jurisdiction fallacy supported SB158 and was finally laid to rest in the House Indian Affairs Committee, 2019, where SB158 itself was also finally laid to rest in favor of a pro-wild horse Memorial offered by three Representatives, HM93[21] (2019).

Unfortunately, APVNM/APNM lobbying alongside the livestock industry lobbyists for bad bill SB126 and their false jurisdiction argument in 2019, gave legislators a pro-animal name to hide their anti-wild horse and pro-livestock industry votes behind. We are now worried that this may have constituted illegal conspiracy[22] under US Title 18; NMSA Chapter 10, Title 16, etc., and more, for those bills and perhaps for SB32 as well. 

Author/Contact: Patience O’Dowd Board WHOA-Voters  wildhorsesnm@yahoo.com

Endorsed by: Dr. Lester Friedlander DVM. USDA Veterinarian, Board WHOA

Editor: Cheryl Gibson APVNM-member 10+ yrs.                 

FOOT NOTES 1-22 Below


[1] Senate Bill SB32: Co-Sponsored by Deb Haaland’s recent staff member, NM Senator Brenda McKenna. However, we have asked her for an amendment. https://www.nmlegis.gov/Legislation/Legislation?Chamber=S&LegType=B&LegNo=32&year=21

[2] New Section 17-11-2. H. “”government entity” means a local, state, or federal government body or agency; a political subdivision of the state; or an employee, agent, or representative of the body, agency, or political subdivision. . . .” Political subdivision includes Land Grants which will still be allowed to trap under the definition of public lands in 17-11-2-K.

[3] California stops trapping 2019. https://www.earthisland.org/journal/index.php/articles/entry/california-first-state-to-ban-fur-trapping/

[4] Eighty-five Countries have banned trapping. https://awionline.org/awi-quarterly/2013-fall/while-world-moves-us-still-caught-its-traps#:~:text=Although%20more%20than%2085%20countries,to%20defend%20these%20inhumane%20devices

[5] Minimal Livestock Losses although 93 million cattle & unknown no. of sheep are all over our Wilderness Areas and Wildlands https://wildearthguardians.org/historical-archive/livestock-losses/

[6] A defining feature of large carnivores may be their ability to regulate their own population density.

[7] https://www.worldatlas.com/articles/the-animals-that-kill-most-humans.html  Land Predators kill 8 (6 snake bites, 1 alligator) people/yr., Large Mammal Wild Predators kill 0.8 people/yr., in the US. https://digitalcommons.usu.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1544&context=hwi#:~:text=estimate%20how%20many%20people%20are,approximately%208%20people%20died%20annually Human Homicides 19,141  https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/fastats/homicide.htm

 CDC   All suicides Number of deaths: 47,511: https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/fastats/suicide.htm 
Death by Dogs 2019: 46 https://www.animals24-7.org/2020/01/04/pit-bulls-killed-33-of-46-u-s-victims-of-fatal-dog-attacks-in-2019/

[8] In 2019 this administration passed “wild-life” corridor bills for free range livestock and game animals only, refusing to provide like corridors for the legally wild horses of Placitas or Lincoln County, etc., and also not providing same for other non-game vertebrates. New Mexico BLM and NMLB have all but wiped-out our legally wild equines, from only ~7000 in 1974 down to 543 in 1978 without explanation. NM is the only state in the Union which defied the 1971 Wild Horse and Burro Act (“1971 Act”) as unconstitutional all the way to the US Supreme Court, where they lost, after wiping out Lincoln Co.’s Wild Burros.

[9] The WHOA National Plan: A sustainable plan for public lands ranchers: https://whoanm.org/wordpress/?p=422

[10] WHOA Wild Horse legislation with Senator Komadina MD. which was also not supported by APNM.

[11] State Ownership Doctrine, Public Trust Doctrine, Common Law, and Caselaw

[12] WHOA v NMLB Court Cases 2015 NM Appellate Court https://whoanm.org/wordpress/?p=317 , and 2018 12th District Court https://whoanm.org/wordpress/?p=528

[13] Bureau of Land Management (BLM)

[14] Game Commission Disregards Perils to Endangered Wolves, Pets https://biologicaldiversity.org/w/news/press-releases/new-mexico-oks-widespread-trapping-despite-broad-public-opposition-2020-01-17/

[15] 1995 Joint Report to Congress by the BLM and USDA FS. The tables therein also illustrate that no other state has wiped out their Wild equines as has NM, or sued over the constitutionality of the 1971 Act.

[16] Sierra Club Feral:  https://www.sierraclub.org/policy/wildlife/feral-animals#:~:text=The%20Sierra%20Club%20calls%20for,native%20flora%2C%20fauna%20and%20soils.&text=The%20Sierra%20Club%20recognizes%20that,Ecological%20niches%20are%20dissimilar    

[17] High Country News – Sierra Club: Wild Horses: Do they Belong in the West? “feral animals” https://www.hcn.org/issues/125/3981

[18] APVNM stands for Animal Protection Voters which is the lobbyist arm of Animal Protection of New Mexico. These groups have done plenty of   good works for other animals, however appear to not be open about their stance on FREE ROAMING Wild Horses and one other related issue.

[19] White Board Video BAD BILL SB126 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kg6ata_bvc8

[20] Independent Poll 86% of Placitans Pro-Free Roaming Wild Horses https://whoanm.org/wordpress/?p=275

[21] House Memorial HM93 https://www.nmlegis.gov/Sessions/19%20Regular/memorials/house/HM093.pdf

[22] 14th Amendment to the Constitution, NMSA 10-16-3: Ethical principles, US Code: Title 18 & more.

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NEW MEXICO USES POLICE BRUTALITY AS A POLITICAL TOOL AGAINST ENVIRONMENTALISTS AND LOSES AGAIN

THE REST OF THE STORY by Patience O’Dowd

While the Wild Horse Observers Association (WHOA) was peacefully watching over New Mexico’s Legally Wild Horses which had been illegally captured and put up for public auction for slaughter by the New Mexico Livestock Board, the New Mexico police came and targeted one of the three WHOA environmentalists there, handcuffing her from behind, and throwing her to the ground, backwards.

They forcefully held her down causing her injury while intentionally risking her life due to health complications absolutely known to them. They refused to allow her arms in front of her, while keeping her on her back, causing further associated grave health risk, though she was causing no threat of anything.

The police however were looking for a story to somehow paint WHOA as an environmental terrorist. WHOA had lawfully passed legislation in 2007 and defended successfully in court an environmental law protecting the very few remaining NM wild horses and their habitat – despite NM media spewing outlandish numbers provided to them by the Cattle Growers and a faux Animal Protection Group.

WHOA recorded the entire life threatening event thankfully, as the state of New Mexico illegally hid their police cam recordings and provided only one paper showing the State Penn had received a call (until years later when they received WHOA’s video evidence recording the entire horrific event) There were ~ 6 police vehicles and an ambulance there on rt 14 that day where the wild horses were being held across the field at the Santa Fe State Prison

WHOA’s activist Jessica Guttman a well know Environmental and Patient’s Rights activist in NM and her attorneys have recently won in court on all points against this brutal, illegal use of force to intimidate. To be clear, Jessica Guttman and her attorneys did not “settle” for money. New Mexico was found guilty on all points, and then NM negotiated on the lawful amount for damages. (See Story Below)

In the meantime, WHOA also won the release of the Alto/Ruidoso’s Wild Horses that WHOA’s activists were there that day to monitor in order to protect. https://www.ruidosonews.com/story/news/local/community/2018/10/20/judge-rules-wild-horses-returned-alto/1710852002/ Dianne L. Stallings Ruidoso News

“Judge rules wild horses to be returned to Alto – The judge ruled the state livestock board does not have jurisdiction over the horse herd and is enjoined from any further unlawful possession and selling of Lincoln County wild horses”

However, the state of New Mexico which uses tax dollars to harass, intimidate and harm environmentalists, is again using tax dollars to appeal WHOA’s win for feasible humane management of our Wild Horses by immuno-contraception versus expensive feedlot glutting which profits wildlife opposition at tax payer expense and slaughter over-the border and over-seas.

BUT WHY HARRASS PEACEFUL ENVIRONMENTALISTS?

As always, follow the money. In a nutshell, the answer is the Factory “Farm Bill”. Wild Horses and their predators are a native to North America and Americans love their “domestic” horses as well, but both are considered competition for the Livestock industry as there are hay shortages every year.

Moreover, Congress has allowed the intentional glutting/ruining of the “domestic” horse market as it is “domestic” horses. There are ~ 10 million domestic horses per a Government Accountability Office (GAO) Report to Congress in 2016. These domestic horses compete with the 93 million cattle per the USDA, for hay. The livestock industry maintains that they have LESS cattle than before, however each bovine weighs ~ 1/3 more than they did in the 1970’s due to genetic maneuvers. This greed for more hay for more profit overseas is also demanding on America’s fresh water supplies and on our wildlife.

Hence Wild Horses are not managed on the range and are instead used to glut and destroy the domestic horse market AND are dangerously sold/given away below kill buyer prices. Further, due to the intentional market glutting, there are no-longer Arabian Farms, Morgan Farms etc. selling horses.

Congress on down to the state level (both parties) looks the other way due to Farm Bill Kickbacks through the livestock industry since 1933, now at ~ $150 Billion/year and growing.

Hence the Department of Interior’s long term illegal malicious management of Wild Horses. Their refusal to feasibly humanely manage wild horses on the range as wildlife. In addition, they perform horrific helicopter round ups and also Puppy Mill wild horses into ranchers personally profitable unnatural private feed lots, as if livestock, without vet care after gelding, families destroyed, using tax dollars while the public does not have oversight access to their private properties called long term holding.

Congressional Members of both parties have disgracefully blocked, using duplicitous tactics, the use of known feasible immuno-contraception since 1995 and at the same time, used tax dollars ($121 Million/year) to brutally wipe out all of their native natural predators through USDA’s Wildlife Services and then complain that wild horses have no natural predators. https://www.predatordefense.org/USDA.htm

Congress has spent more money killing the native predators of the native horse for the livestock industry, than it has spent managing the wild horses. The media spins against the wild horses and American culture, but does not investigate.

NM police settle disabled woman’s suit for $300K

BY ASSOCIATED PRESS
Published: Thursday, September 24th, 2020 at 10:31pmUpdated: Friday, September 25th, 2020 at 12:02am

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SANTA FE – New Mexico State Police have reached a $300,000 settlement with a disabled woman who accused an officer of grabbing and handcuffing her after she refused to provide identification in 2016.

Jessica Guttman claimed in her 2018 lawsuit that she and two friends were parked on the side of a highway looking at horses when officer Kevin Smith pulled up with his cruiser’s lights flashing and asked what they were doing.

Smith wrote in his report that he had been sent to the site following a call from nearby prison officials who were suspicious of the women, The Santa Fe New Mexican reported.

Guttman, 45, gave her name to the officer and Smith asked to see her ID. Guttman refused and started walking away.

Smith grabbed Guttman’s arms and placed them behind her back while trying to handcuff her.

Guttman said in her lawsuit that the incident caused her so much anxiety she fell to the ground and had seizures. Guttman had suffered a traumatic brain injury earlier in her life and has difficulty communicating verbally, she said in her lawsuit.

“It would have been reasonably apparent to a well-trained officer that Ms. Guttman is or may be disabled,” the lawsuit said.

Smith wrote in his report at the time that Guttman “refused to calm down” and that she tried to bite an officer who was attempting to “support her as she thrashed.”

He added that he determined Guttman and her friends were not parked “for malicious intent, rather they were there for the horses.”

Two State Police spokesmen, Dusty Francisco and Ray Wilson, did not respond to questions from the Associated Press about the case or Smith’s current employment status.

Further references available upon request.

Another account with court details here: https://www.facebook.com/NewMexicoAgainstHorseSlaughter/posts/2960289567410201

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WHOA Wins Freedom & Fights On

WHOA fought & WON the release of ALL Alto Wild horses from the NMLB.
WHOA built on their Appellate Court Win for Placitas Wild Horses in 2015.

NOW COMES:

The State and National Livestock Industry Concerns to appeal WHOA’s Alto WIN in the NM Appellate Court while their 1.4 million New Mexico cattle roam freely.

Living FREE!
Release Video @ Wild Horses Of Lincoln County (WHOA’s DBA on FB)
WHOA fought for the release of ALL Alto wild horses and WON.
WHOA takes no salary or pay. 100% volunteer since 2004
Please donate to support WHOA’s work for Freedom
https://whoanm.org/wordpress/?page_id=43
ii
WHOA’s interim release of the Alto Wild Horses to the famous Harkey Ranch to await their release back home into the Enchanted Forest and Alto area of Lincoln County.


FREE AT LAST! Photo Credit WHOA

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Placitas Wild Horses Overview History Update

Natural History, Legislative & Legal history, Population Management, Range Management, Road Safety, Independent Poll
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INDEX BEING UPDATED ………………………………………………………………………………………………3

WILD HORSES NATIVE TO NORTH AMERICA

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Photo by Kevin Larson (c) Prarie Dog on the BLM “Buffalo Tract”


Livestock Corridors

NM Livestock Free Range Supported w/ Cattle Guards & Fencing

Tax Payer Expense

66-7-363. Animals on highway; highway fencing.

C.  Owners of livestock ranging in pastures through which unfenced roads or highways pass shall not be liable for damages by reason of injury or damage to persons or property occasioned by collisions of vehicles using the roads and highways and livestock ranging in the pastures unless the owner of the livestock is guilty of negligence other than allowing livestock to range in the pasture.

D.  As the department of transportation’s annual budget permits, the department of transportation shall:

(1)       construct, inspect regularly and maintain fences along all highways under its jurisdiction and provide cattle underpasses, water pipelines and cattle guards as the department of transportation may deem necessary, unless it makes a fact determination that no livestock can enter the highway from a portion left unfenced; and

(2)       post proper signs along all highways under its jurisdiction that are not fenced on both sides and that are located adjacent to property containing livestock.  The signs shall be located at intervals of not more than two miles along such unfenced highways; provided that sign intervals and postings shall be consistent with the department of transportation’s specifications for a uniform system of traffic-control devices, subject to traffic safety engineering discretion, and shall warn motorists that loose livestock may be encountered and that caution should be used.

E.  A person who violates the provisions of Subsection A or B of this section is guilty of a penalty assessment misdemeanor.

ARTICLE 9
Wildlife Corridors

17-9-1. Short title.

This act [17-9-1 to 17-9-4 NMSA 1978] may be cited as the “Wildlife Corridors Act”.

History: Laws 2019, ch. 97, § 1.

17-9-2. Definitions.

As used in the Wildlife Corridors Act:

A.  “human-caused barrier” means a road, culvert, commercial or residential development or other human-made structure that has the potential to affect the natural movement of wildlife across the landscape;

B.  “large mammal” includes mule deer, elk, pronghorn antelope, bighorn sheep, black bear and mountain lions;

C.  “species of concern” means a wildlife species identified by the department of game and fish as being adversely affected by habitat fragmentation exacerbated by human-caused barriers and the high potential of wildlife-vehicle collisions; and

D.  “wildlife corridors” means those areas used routinely by wildlife to travel through their habitat and includes corridors used by migrating wildlife.

History: Laws 2019, ch. 97, § 2. 17

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By Citizens Against Equine Slaughter

The Choreographed “Players” Sponsored Dance of Horse Slaughter

For the Livestock Industry 

A SAFE “ACT” Hearing Held By Congress, Scapegoating Wild Horses

SAFE Act Update

H.R. 961

Citizens Against Equine Slaughter

30 january, 2020

Today the ~ 5 year old SAFE ACT currently called H.R. 961 along with 9 other bills all at once were discussed in a so called hearing of the Subcommittee on Health of the Committee on Energy and Commerce. . . and what a sham it was making a mockery of 224 co-signers, 80% of the American people, and their representational democracy.

Enter the now infamous player, the ASPCA, of the recent ASPCA et al. massive wild horse round-up plan, to “defend” the SAFE ACT, oh so earnestly as a faithful yet uncredentialed pawn. While the opponents brought in their expert witness a veterinarian ready to professionally hand wave away, anything the non-credentialed stated, and that he did, poorly, but it didn’t matter, the deck was stacked.

The SAFE ACT was introduced by Representative Janice D. Schakowsky of Illinois. She and the Chair understood and led “the dance” There was very little time for any party to provide a defense as mis-matched opponents testified, with scientists being the only ones given credence and all the bills heard at once in a livestock soup.

Testimony was given by Nancy Perry, Senior Vice President, Government Relations, American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (ASPCA) , and opposition by Douglas Corey, D.V.M., from the Unwanted Horse Coalition and Professional Rodeo Cowboys Association. (Ms. Perry gives her testimony a 2:53:30 in the Hearing video, with Dr. Corey following directly after)

The biggest ‘planned mistake’ made by Representative Schakowsky was in not having someone there to testify in support of the bill who had a veterinary degree or a medical-scientific degree. Her ‘expert’ Ms. Perry quoted a professionally PEER reviewed article, however the Chair condescendingly side slammed her for daring to rebut the veterinarian’s governmental (GAO) report to Congress as “anecdotal” or without actual or sufficient data. 

While Ms. Perry did not appear to have brought along proof of what she asserted, there wouldn’t have been time anyway in this mixed up livestock soup called a “hearing”. 

When opening remarks were made from the subcommittee members. The only reference to the SAFE Act among all the other bills introduced was from Representative Greg Walden of Oregon, who didn’t name the bill but rather discussed other bills and then said he was concerned that “other” bills to be discussed would have some “unintended consequences.” 

Glaringly, SAFE ACT “Co-signer” Representative Ben Ray Lujan of New Mexico a member of this Health sub-committee was a NO-SHOW. Certainly he apparently had something else way more important?

However Congressman Walden showed up to put the nail in their coffin!  

He has been a long time political puppet for the livestock industry especially in his district in eastern Oregon. Passing bills like the Steens Mountain Act of 2000 which made some extremely lopsided land trades and created an advisory council for public lands management that has its own pile of legal gray-area issues. However, it was abundantly clear that the almost under-the breath comment made at the end of his remarks (“unintended consequences”) was directed toward the SAFE Act.

For years now the argument used to fight the SAFE Act is that if we close the borders to slaughter, meaning that American horses could not be shipped across the border to be slaughtered for human consumption, there would be a problem with where “unwanted horses” would go leading to an increase of neglected, abandoned or dumped horses. This is the unintended consequence Representative Walden of Oregon feigned without basis, to put the nail in their coffins.

Ms. Perry and Dr. Corey testified further during the second portion of the hearing today. Ms. Perry spoke about the dangers of chemicals routinely given to horses in the United States that are banned for use in animals raised for human consumption. She spoke specifically about phenylbutazone(bute), a drug that is never for use in food animals, never leaves the tissues and one that the FDA has found and acted on when discovered in meat intended for human consumption in the US. 

Ms. Perry stated that slaughter is not humane euthanasia. 

Dr. Corey DVM, stated that slaughter is humane euthanasia. 

However he said it as a Veterinarian, though it is not. 

                            But you see the dynamic. 

Slaughter is done for food only and that involves cruel methods that were never designed for a horse and are often ineffective creating a more horrifying end for the animal. The other, euthanasia, is done to provide a painless end of life because the horse is ill or in such pain that death is imminent or the kindest thing to do.

Slaughter – the killing of animals for food.

Euthanasia – the painless killing of a patient suffering from an incurable and painful disease or in an irreversible coma. 


Then Dr. Corey erroneously testified that the chemical safety issue was negated by time. He explained this by claiming it would no longer be an issue because once horses are shipped to Canada or Mexico to be slaughtered the country would hold the animals for 6 months, and then tested for drug residues to ensure the chemicals were no longer in the tissues. This was incorrect for 2 reasons; 1. Mexico has no such hold on horses entering from the United States, and 2. Some chemicals such as bute, never leave the tissues. Remember, once the European Union (EU) stopped buying horse meat from Mexico, he was not able to support his claims.

Dr. Corey stated that since the ban on US slaughter there has been an increase in the number of investigations for neglected animals, and dumped or abandoned animals. What he didn’t say but Ms. Perry did point out is that the timing of the GAO report he was quoting was begun the same time the United States entered a recession. Therefore there is no data that confirms the end of slaughter in the US had anything to do with the increase in investigations, or abandonment. 

ENTER WILD HORSES!


The telling, and perhaps most alarming, turn in the hearing was an awkward segway created by Congressman Griffith of VA who is opposed to the bill. He found a way to bring the plight of American wild horses into the situation. By stating that in his area of VA there used to be a saying that when you take your livestock to sale you had better lock-up your hauler because otherwise you get done selling your animals and go back to find someone dumped a load of unwanted horses in it. ( hearsay) This was at approximately 4:07:30 in the video. Dr. Corey replied with further hearsay: “Actually in the west we found that to be true and I’ve talked to several state veterinarians that have indicated that horses were abandoned and turned out in the wild with the wild roaming horses and that is a fact.”

Later Congressman Griffith got a second round of questions (approx 4:19:00 in the video) for the panel and went back to the SAFE Act bill saying:

 â€œDr. Corey you mentioned retirement homes for horses. That’s a term I’ve often used. We’re spending more than 80 million a year on retirement homes horses. There are not enough families out there who want to adopt, or enough facilities to adopt, which is why we have approximately 50 thousand horses from federal lands now in what I call retirement homes.


Shame on you Representative Griffith. These are factually false statements, and you have at a minimum, not done your homework on a bill before you, or a budget you voted to pass for the BLM to manage wild horses. 

First of all the 80 million dollar budget BLM is appropriated for wild horses and burro management is not spent entirely on warehousing wild horses. And if the agency would manage them on the range using more feasible methods of population control, there would be very little needed to warehouse horses, because it would be rare any would have to be removed from the range. 

Secondly, it is illegal for federal agencies managing wild horses, such as the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) or the Forest Service (FS) to ship wild horses or sell wild horses to a person known to ship them to slaughter. So this is never a legal avenue to  deal with the people’s wild horses in holding that were removed from our public lands. 

And finally, CAES has just this month, filed lawsuit alleging wild horses from the holding facility in Oregon are missing (numbering in the hundreds). The case was based on documentation provided by a Freedom of Information Act request, and BLM lying about how many were in holding, when 4 of our members went and physically counted horses and compared tag no.s at the facility. 

Did Representative Griffith and Dr. Corey just confirm our fears that our wild horses removed are being illegally slid out the back door to slaughter? 

In their own words? Basically, YES.

The case we filed is against those BLM employees at a federal facility in Oregon, in Congressman Walden’s district. Is he blocking this bill knowing the horses warehoused at a federal facility in his district would no longer be able to be snuck out and shipped off to slaughter?

We also noted, at the end of the Hearing a list of letters read, (many look good players) in support or opposition of various bills, revealed that:

 A letter was sent to Vice President Pence from an organization 

based in eastern Oregon called Protect the Harvest strong supporters of horse slaughter and wild mare, experimental ovariectomies..

It is important to note here that Forest Lucas, owner of Lucas Oil and founder of Protect the Harvest is a personal friend of Vice President Pence. Previously they have collaborated in the case of a father and son ranching family who were jailed for arson on public lands in eastern Oregon. VP Pence and Mr Lucas secured a pardon by President Trump for the Hammond’s. That came after the Hammond jail sentence to meet the minimum sentence was rallied against sparking an armed srtand-off in eastern Oregon. That stand-off was led by Ammon and Ryan Bundy (sons of Cliven) who are well-known anti-federal government, cowboys who believe public lands should not be managed by the federal government. The stand-off was staged after the armed group took over a federal building in a wildlife refuge in eastern Oregon.

Protect the Harvest is also one of the leading organizations promoting the surgical experiments to perform wild mare sterilizations. When BLM was stopped by CAES from doing these experiments, the BLM colluded with Protect the Harvest to have members of the organization purchase horses from the BLM and do experiments on them which circumvented the AWA regulations for experimenting on wildlife because once a wild horse is purchased they lost their wild status and become legally labelled as livestock, thus following livestock laws for the procedures which are much less protective for the animal. Has Protect the Harvest done any scientific studies on the chemicals in spayed mares that are sent to slaughter for human consumption? Our lawsuit against the spays discussed the use of chemicals that would present a health hazard to animals who prey on wild horses and ingest the meat. So Protect the Harvest cannot say they support slaughter, and at the same time send animals that are full of toxic chemicals, including ones from these surgical experiments that are known to be dangerous for any consumer of the meat.

We have long had a problem with co-signers of this bill not taking any action to move the bill forward. Simply adding your name, and getting kudos, is not enough, the horses need them to make a commitment and represent us on that commitment, not just make a look good choreographed moove.


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12th Judicial District Court Lincoln County, NM – Findings of Fact and Conclusions of Law WHOA V NMLB II

Alto Wild Horses Released by WHOA, through this court. by Kathy Kolt

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